طراحی و تبیین چارچوبی برای شناسایی و دسته‌بندی ریسک‌های منابع انسانی: کاربرد رویکرد کیفی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه الزهرا

2 پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

منابع انسانی به‌عنوان منبع حیاتی موفقیت بیشتر سازمان‌ها، دیرزمانی است که مورد بحث و بررسی پژوهشگران قرار گرفته است. با وجود توجه فزاینده به این حوزه‌ی پژوهشی، منابع انسانی اکثراً تحت عنوان سرمایه‌های مولد ارزش نگریسته شده‌ و جز معدودی موارد استثنا، ریسک‌های مربوط به  آن به‌صورت سامان‌مند مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته است. در این راستا، در پژوهش حاضر دیدگاهی چندبُعدی و کل‌نگر به مبحث ریسک منابع انسانی اتخاذ شده است. از طریق مصاحبه‌های نیمه‌ساختاریافته با خبرگان منابع انسانی یکی از سازمان‌های مطرح در صنعت برق کشور، به شناسایی ابعاد چندگانه، ریسک‌های منابع انسانی، مؤلفه‌های این ابعاد و شاخص‌های معرف آنها پرداختیم. با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری غیراحتمالی قضاوتی و گلوله‌برفی، مصاحبه با خبرگان تا حد اشباع نظری ادامه یافت. داده‌های برآمده از مصاحبه‌ها با استفاده از روش کیفی تحلیل مضمون و نرم‌افزار Nvivo تحلیل شد و پایایی کدگذاری‌های مصاحبه‌ها توسط ضریب درون موضوعی کاپا مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. در نتیجه‌ی تحلیل داده‌ها، 4 مضمون اصلی، 12 مضمون فرعی و 49 مفهوم در رابطه با ریسک‌های منابع انسانی سازمان مورد مطالعه و شناسایی قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing and Explaining a Framework for Identification and Classification of Human Resource Risks: Application of Qualitative Approach

چکیده [English]

Human resource has long been considered as a vital resource for success in most organizations. In spite of this attention, it has always been regarded as a value producer capital. Except for few cases, the risks relating to human resource have not been studied systematically. This research is intended to have a general look at risks relating to human resource. Aspects and components of these risks are studied in an important company at power industry by having semi-structured interviews with human resource expert groups selected by non-probability judgment sampling method. The interviews were continued through snowball and theoretical saturation method. The dada was analyzed by NVIVO software through content analysis. The reliability of the coding was confirmed by Kappa inter-rater reliability coefficient. The study resulted in four main themes, 12 secondary themes, and 49 concepts relating to the risks of human resource.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Human Resource Risks
  • Qualitative Approach
  • Content Analysis
  • Nvivo software

قلی‌پور، آرین و ابراهیمی، الهام (1394). مدیریت ریسک منابع انسانی. تهران: نشر کتاب مهربان.

Aven, T. & Renn, O. (2010). Risk Management and Governance: Concepts, Guidelines and Applications. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Bernstein, P. (1996). Againstthe Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bhattacharya, M. & Wright, P. (2000). Recognizing Risk in Human Capital Investments: A Real Options Approach to Strategic Human Resource Management. New York: CAHRS Working Paper, Ithaca.

Bontis, N., Keow, W. C. & Richardson, S. (2000). Intellectual Capital and Business Performance in Malaysian Industries. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 1(1), 85 - 100.

Boudreau, J. & Jesuthasan, R. (2011). Transformative HR. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bryson, J. (2003). Managing HRM risk in a Merger. Employee Relations, 25(1), 14-30.

Cascio, W. (2012). Be a Ringmaster of Risk. HR Magazine, 38-43.

Cascio, W. & Boudreau, J. (2014). HR Strategy: Optimizing risks, Optimizing Rewards. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 1(1), 77-97.

Clardy, A. (2004). Toward an HRD Auditing Protocol: Assessing HRD Risk Management Practices. Human Resource Development Review, 3, 124-150.

Cresswell, J. (1994). Research Design. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.

Edvinsson, L. & Malone, S. (1997). Intellectual Capital: Realizing your Firm’s True Value by Finding its Hidden Brainpower. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Ernst & Young. (2008). 2008 Global Human Resources (HR) Risk: from the Danger Zone to the Value Zone. London: EY.

Ernst & Young. (2013). Navigating Today’s Complex Business Risks- Europe, Middle East, India and Africa Fraud Survey 2013. London: EY.

Fheili, M. (2006). Developing Human Resources Key Risk Indicators: Know Your Staff (KYS) Practices.Journal of Operational Risk, 1(3), 71–85.

Graham, J. & Weiner, J. (Eds.). (1995). Risk Versus Risk: Tradeoffs in Protecting Health and the Environment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

ISO 31000. (2009). Risk Management Principles and Guidelines. Geneva: International Standard Organization.

Kedar, B. (1970). Again: Arabic Risq, Medieval Latin Riscum. Centro Italiano Di Studi Sull Alto Medioevo, Spoleto: Studi Medievali.

Kupi, E., Ilomäki, S.-K., Talja, H., Lönnqvist, A. & Sillanpää, V. (2008). Risk Management of Intangible Assets – Risks and Risk Management Practices in Companies. Finland: VTT Working.

Langenhan, M., Leka, S. & Jain, A. (2013). Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?. Safety and Health at Work, 4, 87-94.

Li, Y. & Zhang, X. (2014). Research on the Innovative Talent Management Based on Risk Management Theory. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(4), 413-419.

Mäenpää, I. & Voutilainen, R. (2012). Insurances for Human Capital risk Management in SMEs. Knowledge Management Systems, 42(1), 52-66.

Merna, T. & Al-Thani, F. (2005). Corporate Risk Management: An Organisational Perspective. England: John Wiley & Sons .

Meyer, M., Roodt, G. & Robbins, M. (2011). Human Resources Risk Management: Governing People Risks for Improved Performance.SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(1), 310-321.

Mousavi, A., Nordin, M., Othman, Z. & Sulaiman, R. (2011). A Method for Human Resource Risk Management in Mobile Workforce Brokering Systems. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(12), 1287-1294.

Pandey, B. (2013). Understanding of Occupational Health and Safety Risks and Participatory Practices in Small Businesses. Doctoral Dissertation, Massey University.

Paul, C. & Mitlacher, L. (2008). Expanding Risk Management Systems: Human Resources and German Banks. Strategic Change, 17, 21–33.

Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive Advantage Through People. Boston, MA.: Harvard Business School Press.

Rotărescu, E. (2011). The Management of Risk in the Training of the Human Resources. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Sibiu.

Spencer Pickett, K. (2010). The Internal Auditing Handbook. England: John Wiley and Sons.

Stevens, J. (2006). Managing Risk: The HR Contribution. London: Routledge.

Svetlozar, T., Stoyan, V. & Frank, J. (2011). A Probability Metrics Approach to Financial Risk Measures. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Trull, T. & Prinstein, M. (2012). Clinical Psychology. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Verreault, D. & Hyland, M. (2005). Evidence for Increasing the Focus on Strategic Risk in HRM Audits. Managerial Auditing Journal, 20(5), 524-543.

Wang, X., Wang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, L. & Cao, X. (2011). Constructing a Decision Support System for Management of Employee Turnover Risk. Inf Technol Manag, 12, 187–196.

Young, M. & Hexter, E. (2011). Managing Human Capital Risk. New York: The Conference Board.