Proposing a Green Human Resource Management Model on the Basis of Human Resource Management

Document Type : Research Paper


1 عضو هیات علمی پژوهشگاه حوزه و دانشگاه

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت اجرایی، گروه مدیریت، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار گروه مدیریت، دانشکده اقتصاد و مدیریت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شیراز، ایران ( نویسنده مسئول)


Green human resource management is the most important component of green management which has attracted the attention of many HRM researchers recently. This research is aimed at designing a structural model of human resource management based on human resource management systems. It is being proposed for the first time in the literature of human resource management. This applied research follows a descriptive-survey method. It is a cross-sectional research in terms of time. A combination of a structured questionnaire on green human resources management and a researcher-made questionnaire on human resource management systems was used for data collection. The reliability of the instruments was tested through convergent method, and the validity was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The statistical population of this research contains all managers of Fars Power Distribution Company (120 members). The sample included 92 people selected according to Cochran formula based on stratified random sampling. The research hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling with SmartPLS software. The results indicated that the effectiveness of predictive variables for implementing green human resources management can be ranked in the following way: maintenance, compensation, performance management and human resource development. The relationship between these systems and the management of green human resources turned out to be significant.


توکلی‌نژاد، حسن؛ جزنی، نسرین؛ معمارزاده تهران، غلامرضا و افشارکاظمی، محمدعلی (1395)، شناسایی و اولویت‌بندی عوامل مؤثر در نگهداشت کارکنان، فصلنامهپژوهش‌هایمدیریتمنابعانسانیدانشگاهجامعامامحسین (ع)، زمستان، سال هشتم، شماره 4: 155-185.
رستمی، محمدرضا (1384)، توسعه منابع انسانی (از برنامه تا عمل)، جلد اول، چاپ اول، تهران، مدیریت امور اداری و تشکیلات.
سیدجوادین، سیدرضا؛ روشندل اربطانی، طاهر و نوبری، علی‌رضا (1395)، مدیریت منابع انسانی سبز «یک رویکرد سرمایه‌گذاری و توسعه پایدار»، فصلنامهعلمیپژوهشیدانشسرمایه‌گذاری، زمستان، سال پنجم، شماره 20: 297-327.
عباسی، طیبه؛ منوریان، عباس و رضانژاد، توحید (1395)، شناسایی و تبیین موانع استقرار نظام پرداخت مبتنی‌بر عملکرد در سازمان‌های دولتی، فصلنامهپژوهش‌هایمدیریتمنابعانسانیدانشگاهجامعامامحسین (ع)، پاییز، سال هشتم، شماره 3: 109-133.
فیروزی، مهدی (1384)، محیط‌زیست، تهران، جلد اول، چاپ اول، سازمان انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی، 24.
کاندولا، سرینی و اس آر (1389)، بررسی مداخله‌ها و پیشران‌های راهبرد مدیریت عملکرد پاداش بنیان، ترجمۀ غلام جاپلقیان، دوماهنامه توسعه انسانی پلیس، سال هفتم، مرداد و شهریور، شماره 30: 113-159.
میرکمالی، سید محمد (1389)، مبانی مدیریت منابع انسانی، جلد اول، چاپ اول، تهـران، یسـطرون.
ردمن، تام و ویلکینسون، آدریان (1388)، مدیریت منابع انسانی پیشرفته، ترجمۀ میرعلی سید نقوی، تهران، مهکامه، 116.
Aguinis, H., (2005), Performance Management, 3 ed, Edinburgh, Pearson, 2.
Arthur, J. B., and Boyles, T., (2007), Validating the human resource system structure: A levels-based strategic HRM approach, Human Resource Management Review, 17(1), 77-92.
Arulrajah, A., Opatha, H., and Nawaratne, N., (2015), Green Human resource Management Practices: A Review, Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(1).
Biehler-Baudisch, H., (1994), Environmental training in Germany, Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(3), 10-16.
Boks, C., (2006), The soft side of ecodesign, Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(15), 1346-1356.
Bontis, N., (2006), Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models, Management decision, Journal of Management History, 36(2), 63-76.
Brío, J.A., Fernandez, E., and Junquera, B., (2007), Management and employee involvement in achieving an environmental action-based competitive advantage: an empirical study, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(4), 491-522.
Brío, J.A., Junquera, B., and Ordiz, M., (2008), Human resources in advanced environmental approaches e a case analysis, International Journal of Production Research, 46(21), 6029-6053
Cappelli, P., (2015), Why We Love to Hate HR and What HR Can Do About It, Harvard Business Review. Available online at: http://www.
Chan, E. S. W., (2011), Implementing environmental management systems in small and medium sized hotels: obstacles, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 35(3), 3-23.
Chen, S.Y., Tien, P.W., Chen, K.C and Lee, I. U., (2012), The influence of environmental commitments on green intellectual capital, Business and Information, 283-308.
Daily, B. F., Bishop, J and Steiner, R., (2007), The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance, Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95-109.
Daily, B.F., and Huang, S., (2001), Achieving sustainability through attention to human resource factors in environmental management International, Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(12), 1539-1552. Available online at:
Daily, B.F., Bishop, J.W., and Massoud, J.A., (2012), The role of training and empowerment in environmental performance: a study of the Mexican maquiladora industry, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 32(5), 631-647.
Daily, B.F., Bishop, J.W., and Steiner, R., (2007), The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance, Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95-110.
Dutta, S. (2012), Greening people: a strategic dimension, ZENITH International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, 2(2), 143-148.
Eshun, C., and Duah F.K., (2011), Reward as a Motivation Tool for Employee Performance. Swedish, BTH School of management. Master"s Thesis in Business administration, 14-29.
Gerhart, B., Wright, P.M., McMahan, G.C., and Snell, S.A., (2000), Measurement Error in Research on Human Resources and Firm Performance: How Much Error is There and How Does it Influence Effect Size Estimates, Personnel Psychology, 53(4), 803-834.
Giancola, L.F., (2009), Is Total Rewards a Passing Fad?, Compensation & Benefits Review, 41(4), 29-35.
González-Benito, J., (2006), Environmental pro-activity and business performance: an empirical analysis, Omega, 33(1), 1-15.
Govindarajulu, N., and Daily, B.F., (2004), Motivating employees for environmental improvement,Industrial Management & Data Systems, 104(4), 364-372.
Graves, L.M., Sarkis, J., and Zhu, Q., (2013), How transformational leadership and employee motivation combine to predict employee proenvironmental behaviors in China, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 35, 81-91.
Guest, D.E., (1997), Human resource management and performance: a review and research agenda,International Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(3), 263-276.
Gupta, S., and Kumar, V., (2013), Sustainability as corporate culture of a brand for superior performance,Journal of World Business, 48(3), 311-320.
Hale, M., (1995), Training for environmental technologies and environmental management, Journal of Cleaner Production, 3(1-2), 19-23.
Huselid, M.A., and Becker, B.E., (2000), Comment on Measurement Error in Research on Human Resources and Firm Performance: How Much Error is There and How Does it Influence Effect Size Estimates?, Personnel Psychology, 53(4), 835-854.
Jabbour Chiappetta, C.J., Jabbou Lopes de Sousa, A.B., Govindan, K., Teixeira, A.A., and Freitas R.D.S.W., (2012), Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil: The role of human resource management and lean manufacturing, Journal of Cleaner Production, 47, 129-140. Available online at:
Jabbour, C.J.C., (2013), Environmental training in organisations: from a literature review to a framework for future research, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 74(1), 144-155.
Jabbour, C.J.C., and Santos, F.C.A., (2008), Relationships between human resource dimensions and environmental management in companies: proposal of a model, Journal of Cleaner Production, 16(1), 51-58. Available online at:
Jabbour, C.J.C., Santos, F.C.A., and Nagano, M. S., (2010), Contributions of HRM throughout the stages of environmental management: methodological triangulation applied to companies in Brazil, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(7), 1049-1089. Available online at:
Jackson, S., Renwick, D., Jabbour, C. J. C., and Muller-Camen, M., (2011), State-of-the-Art and Future Directions for Green Human Resource Management Zeitschrift für Personal for schung, German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, 25(2), 99-116.
Jackson, S.E., and Seo, J., (2010), The greening of strategic HRM scholarship, Journal of Organization and Management, 7(4), 278-290.
Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S., and Jiang, K., (2014), An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management,Academy of Management. Annual, 8(1), 1-58.
Jacob, C., and Jolly, J., (2012), A Study of Green HR Practices and Its Effective Implementation in the Organization: A Review, International Journal of Business and Management, 7(21), 25-33. Available online at:
Kitazawa, S., and Sarkis, J., (2000), The relationship between ISO 14001 and continuous source reduction programs. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 20(2), 225-248.
Koch, M.J., and McGrath, R.G., (1996), Improving labor productivity: Human resource management policies do matter, Strategic Management Journal, 17(2), 335-354.
Longoni, A., Golini, R., and Cagliano, R., (2014), The role of New Forms of Work Organization in developing sustainability strategies in operations, International Journal of Production Economics, 147, 147-160.
Madsen, H., and Ulhoi, J.P., (2001), Greening of human resources: environmental awareness and training interests within the workforce, Industrial Management & Data Systems, 101(2), 57-63.
Mandip, G., (2012), Green HRM: People management commitment to environmental sustainability, Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 1, 244-252. Available online at:
Marcus, A., and Fremeth, R., (2009), Green management matters regardless, Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 17-26.
Margaretha, M., and Saragih, S., (2013), Developing new corporate culture through green human resource practice, Paper presented at the International Conference on Business, Economics, and Accounting, 20-23 March, Bangkok-Thailand, The 2013 IBEA, 1-24.
Marshall, M.E., and Mayer, D.W., (1992), Environmental training: it's good business, Business Horizons Journal, 35(2), 54-57.
McLean, G. N. (2006). National Human Resource Development: A Focused Study in Transitioning Societies in the Developing World, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 8(1), pp. 3-11.
Michael, A., (2011), Strategic human resource management: a guide to action, 4 ed. London, Kogan Page.
Michel, J.L., (1995), Performance measurement and performance management, Production Economics.41(1-3), 23-35.
Molina-Azorin, J.F., Claver-Cortés, E., López-Gamero, M. D., and Tarí, J. J., (2009), Green management and financial performance, A literature review Management Decision, 47(7), 1080-1100. Available online at:
Muster, V., and Schrader, U., (2011), Green Work-Life Balance:A New Perspective for Green HRM, Zeitschrift für Personal forschung, 25(2), 140-156.
Nalini G., and Daily, B.F., (2004), Motivating employees for environmental improvement, Industrial Management & Data Systems, 104(4), 364-372. Available online at:
Oates, A., (1996), Industrial Relations and the Environment in the UK In Wehrmeyer, W. (ed.), (1996), Greening People - Human Resources and Environmental Management, First Edition, Sheffield, England, Greenleaf Publishing.
Opatha, H., (2013), Green Human Resource Management: A Simplified Introduction, HR Dialogue, Department of HRM, Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, 22-41.
Opatha, H., and Anton Arulrajah, A., (2014), Green Human Resource Management: A Simplified General Reflections, International Business Research, 7(8), 101-112.
Paauwe, J., and Boselie, P., (2005), HRM and performance: what next? Human Resource Management Journal, 15(4), 68-83.
Paillé, P., Yang, C., Olivier, B., and Jiafei, J., (2014), The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study, Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), 451-466.
Parida, R., Raj, S., Sharma, P., and Yadav, V., (2015), Green HR: Analysis of sustainable practices incorporated by IT firms in India, SIMS Journal of Management Research, March, 1, 12-17.
Pavithradevi, V., and Sandhya, R.C., (2016), Green HR: Does Its Performance Match with the Value Perceived by the Employees?, International Journal Of Business & Management, March, 4(3), 312-314.
Phillips, L., (2007), Go Green to Gain the Edge over Rivals, People Management, 13(17), 23rd August, 9.
Pilbeam, S., and corbridge, M., (2006), People Resourcing Contemporary HRM in Practice, London: Pearson Education Limited.
Purcell, J., and Hutchinson, S., (2007), Front-line managers as agents in the HRMperformance causal chain: Theory, analysis and evidence. Human Resource Management Journal, 17(1), 3-20.
Raymond, S., (2002), Human Resource Management, National library of Australia. Singapore.
Renwick, D. W., Redman, T., and Maguire, S., (2013), Green human resource management: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(1), 1-14.
Renwick, D., Jabbour, C.J.C., Muller-Camen, M., Redman, T., and Wilkinson, A., (2012), Introduction to the Green (environmental) human resource management special issue, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23, 3498-3499.
Renwick, D.W., Redman, T., and Maguire, S., (2013), Green human resource management: a review and research agenda, International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(1), 1-14.
Renwick, D.W.S. Redman, T. and Maguire, S., (2008), Green HRM: A Review, Process Model, and Research Agenda, University of Sheffield Working Paper, 1-18. Available online at:
Sarkis, J., Gonzalez-Torre, P., and Adenso-Diaz, B., (2010), Stakeholder pressure and the adoption of environmental practices: the mediating effect of training, Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 163-176.
Sathyapriya, J., Kanimozhi, R., and Adhilakshmi, V., (2013), Green HRM- delivering high Performance HR systems, International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management, 4(2), 19-25.
Schuler, R., and Jackson, S.E., (2014), Human resource management and organizational effectiveness: yesterday and today, Journal of Organization Effect on People Performance. 1(1), 35-55.
Sharma, R., and Gupta, N., (2015), Green HRM: An Innovative Approach to Environmental Sustainability, Twelfth AIMS International Conference on Management, 2-5 January, 59.
Sroufe, R. P., Melnyk, S. A., and Vastag, G., (1998), Environmental Management System as a Source of Competitive Advantage, unpublished manuscript, Michigan State University at East Lansing, MI.
Venselaar, J., (1995), Environmental training: industrial needs, Journal of Cleaner Production, 3, 2.
Wagner, M., (2007), Integration of environmental management with other managerial functions of the firm, Empirical effects on drivers of economic performance Long Range Planning, 40(6), 611-628. Available online at:
Wehrmeyer, W., (1996), Greening People, Human Resources and Environmental Management, Sheffield, Greenleaf Publishing, London, 1-356.
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Serial Number 31
serial no.31
June 2018
Pages 77-104
  • Receive Date: 08 October 2017
  • Revise Date: 05 January 2018
  • Accept Date: 14 April 2018
  • First Publish Date: 22 May 2018